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January , 00

Classics 01

Roman History

- after battle at Canae, Capua (longtime ally) and Syracuse defeated by Hannibal à Macedonia declares war on Rome

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- Romans controlled up to Swiss Alps

- Cumae was first Greeks that Romans had encountered

- Messana was part of the first Punic War (64-41)

- Romans fighting on a few fronts � Romans used allies in Macedonia i.e. Athens or Corinthe to fight against Macedonians

- Quintus Fabius Maximus Cunctator � avoided direct contact, open battles � sought time and assaults on Hannibal, cut off Hannibal’s supplies

- After Canae, everyone returned to this way of delaying

- Hannibal foraged for the next few years, no supplies because intercepted by Roman army in Spain

- Publius and Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio � commanders in Spain (brothers) and were killed in battle

- Romans gave command of Roman forces in Spain to son of Publius, Publius Cornelius Scipio

o Had imperium

o Was very young (5)

o Found phalanx was too inflexible and made up of centuries

o Made principal fighting force of Romans and centuries called Maniple

§ March into battle as a phalanx but try to avoid being encircled

§ Adopted larger swords from Spaniards called Gladius

- Hannibal’s control of Syracuse and control of waterway was very important

- Recovery of Syracuse by Marcus Claudius Marcellus with very large fleet in 14 recovered the city in 1 à raised morale of Romans

- Archimedes � was within walls of Syracuse providing inventions for protection

- Capua was recovered in 11 and destroyed

- Tarentum was recaptured by Romans in 0

- Publius Cornelius Scipio brought Spanish allies to Rome

- Hasdrubal

o Brother of Hannibal

o Defeated by Scipio

o Looked as if he was retreating and tricked scipio

o Defeated again by Romans

o Beheaded in 07

- Scipio

o Realized war could be a stalemate unless declared war in Hannibal’s home country

o Opposition by senate

o 01 Zama (6 Zamae) � battle here between scipio and Hannibal and home help fight against Romans

o Carthage surrenders Hannibal but killed in 01

o Received honorary fourth name Africanus for victory over Africa

- Hannibal stayed in politics but sought refuge in Persia (Romans chased him there)

- Spain now a Roman Province

- Sicily,

- Africa not a province byt a client state with no foreign policy

- Romans declared war on Macedonia in 00 B.C. à war of vengence

- Philip was the King of Macedonia and descendant of Alexander the Great’s general

- Philip lost Balkans to Rome but remained in power after

- T. Quinctius Flamininus

o Second Macedonian War

o Major battle of Cynoscephalae 00 � 17

o Romans defeated Macedonians even though they originated the phalanx

o Declared freedom of Greece who were now allies of Rome

- Third battle Perseus 168 the Battle of Pyana � Lucius Aemilius Paullus defeats Macedonians

- Perseus is the son of Philip and captured by Romans

- Macedonia given some autonomy but now part of Roman empire

- Trasimene is where Hannibal had thousands of soldiers

- Greece a privince called Achaia

- M. Porcius Cato

o In Roman Senate

o Born in Tusculum

o No ancestors but became consul and censor

o Had fought with Africanus at battle of Zama

o Very conservative

o Recognized Carthage was still a threat

o Concluded all speeches with “Carthago delenda let” = Carthage must be destroyed

- Masinissa

o In Numidia

o Carthage had to beg Romans if they wanted a war

o Berber origin

o King Masinissa encouraged by Romans to attack Carthage and eventually Carthage attacked Numidia

§ Romans attacked Carthage for breach of treaty

- 14 �146 third Punic war

- L. Aemilius Paullus

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