• Facebook
  • Twitter

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on changes to innovation. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality changes to innovation paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in changes to innovation, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your changes to innovation paper at affordable prices with Live Paper Help!


Question 10 (Page 6)

What are effectiveness and efficiency, and how are they related to organizational behavior?

Effectiveness and efficiency are two main factors concerned in productivity of the organization and each individual.


Effectiveness concerning the achievement of goals, for example, last year our company had reached the target of sale in 5000 metric tons of stainless steel pipe. But it did not mean efficiency, it mentions the ratio of effective output to the input required to achieve it, so it is efficiency when the target reached in lower cost and the net profit had increased 5 percents

Similarly, it also can explain the productivity of each individual in the organization; For instance, John had sold 00 tons of stainless steel pipes in 800 US dollar in transportation cost. However Jack also had sold 00 tons of stainless steel pipes in 700 US dollar. As a result, John and Jack were effective, but Jack was more efficient than John, because Jack achieved his goal in lower cost.

One of organizational behavior‘s major concerns is productivity, which include the effectiveness and efficiency created by groups and each individual determine the profitability and the long term succeed of the firm.

Question 8 (Page 54)

What are the five steps in behavior modification?

Behavior modification is an application of reinforcement concept to individuals in the work setting. The five steps of behavior modification as below

(1) Identifying critical behaviors that make a significant impact on the employees job performance.

() Developing baseline data. This is obtained by determining the number of times the identified behavior is occurring in the present conditions.

() To perform a functional analysis to identify behavioral consequences of performance, this tells the manager the antecedent cues that emit the behavior and the consequences that are currently maintaining it.

(4) Developing and implementing an intervention strategy to strengthen desirable performance behaviors and weaken undesirable behaviors

(5) Evaluating performance improvement.

In order to clarify above theories, let take an example from HLAC steel company in Vietnam. By the beginning of year 00, HLAC had planned to upgrade its official paper work from hand writing to totally computerize. Previously, nearly 50 percents of paper works in the firm were handwriting; unfortunately those were not accurate and duplicate work, also time consuming. However, to become computerize was not such an easy matter that could be completed in short time. Moreover it should concern to the capacities of using computer of current old employees, therefore all of them had to be retrained. Also, the firm had issued many policies for encouraging employee to upgrade themselves, and reward high-level performance employees.

After three months restructure, almost 0 percents using computer well, the work completed faster and much more accurate, saving more time.

Question 6 (Page 8)

Are most people satisfied with their jobs? Explain

Job satisfaction is a general attitude toward one’s job; the difference between the amount of rewards workers receive and the amount they believe they should receive. The belief that satisfied employees is more productive than dissatisfied employees.

According to my own opinion, it isn’t any people satisfied their current existent job. There are many reasons to explain why they are satisfied and dissatisfied the job. Such as nature of the work, supervision, present pay, promotion opportunity, and relations with co-workers.

-The employees would like to work with their interesting job, and work that they are professional.

-The supervision of the manager would affect their work‘s efficiency.

-Employees always compare their salary with each other, why this paid more or why I paid less. They feel the inequality in their present pay.

-Employees work hard to have a better performance to get promotion opportunity and be paid more.

-If the worker in a department could build up good relationship, the workers are more satisfied and tend to work more effective. Because they do not feel lonely but they do feel they are stronger.

Psychologically, these factors are connected relatively. So the organizations with more satisfied employees tend to be more effective than organizations with less satisfied employees.

As a result, the manager should concern the job satisfaction of employees, whether they are happy with their job and current job condition, environment. Employee dissatisfaction can be expressed in a number of ways. For example, rather than quit, employees can complain, be insubordinate, steal organizational property, or shirk a part of their work responsibilities.

Question (Page 114) but just a and c

What behavioral predictions might you make if you know that an employee had (a) an external locus of control? (b) A low Mach score? (c) Low self-esteem? (d) A Type A personality?

(a) Theoretically, the employees who have external locus of control are the people who see their lives as being controlled by outside forces. They are opposed to internals, those who believes that they control their destinies. Moreover, external are more dissatisfied they job than internals, because they perceive themselves as having little control over those organizational outcomes that are important to them. Therefore external have higher absenteeism rates, are more alienated from the work setting and are less involved on their jobs.

As a result, the employees who have external locus of control are not suitable to be managers, because they believe themselves are controlled by outside forces, they can not control their lives by themselves and should be directed from others; so how can they control and manage their subordinates successfully. Externals should do well one some ready structured and routine job, accountant, for instance.

(c) Self-esteem mentions the degree of the liking and disliking of people. The people who have low self-esteems (SEs) are more susceptible to external influence than are high self-esteems, and they depend on the receipt of positive evaluation from others. They are more likely to seek approval from others and more prone to conform to the beliefs and behaviors of those they respect than are high SEs. In managerial positions, low SEs will tend to be concerned with pleasing others and, therefore, are less likely to takes unpopular stands than are high SEs, therefore, low SEs are not suitable to be a manager, they can not work and think independently and to be affected easily by outsiders.

In conclusion, personality of employees influence the organizational behaviors, the above are two of many types of personality, the workers who are external locus of control and low self-esteem, are not suitable to be managers. A manager should do four tasks planning, organizing, controlling and leading. However, above personality are passive people, they are more likely to be influenced susceptibly and directed by external factors. They are more appropriate to be are normal workers which do some daily routine jobs.

Question 5 (Page 14)

What is stereotyping? Give an example of how stereotyping can create perceptual distortion.

When we judge someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he or she belongs, we are using the shortcut called stereotyping. In fact, this happened regularly in the organization, we fluently hear comments that represent stereotypes based on age, gender, age, race, ethnicity, and even weight “Women won’t relocate for a promotion”, “ men are not interested in child care”, “older worker can’t learn new skill”, “younger workers are less working experience” and so on.

However, things are not only positive, stereotypes have advantage in case it is accurate, it is a means of simplifying a complex world, and it permits us to maintain consistency. Oppositely, the problems of stereotypes are that they are wildspread, despite the fact that they may not contain a shred of truth or that they may be irrelevant. For instance, many businessmen believe that their relative is more loyalty to them than external recruitment and creditable. In my point of view, it depend of that individual s’ personality and capacity. If you delegate them some important tasks but without thinking about their ability. Some trouble would be made because they are not professional to the jobs even that would influence your regular operation of the organization. Moreover, in case they are cupidity that would make the organization cost more than external recruitment. This situation always happens in some organization of Asia countries.

Question 4 (Page 180)

Describe the three needs isolated by McClelland. How are they related to worker behavior?

In order to motivate employees to perform better, motivation is necessary for the organization, but what motivation methods is suitable to used, first of all the managers 0should realize the need of the worker. Formerly there are many theory describe the need, one of the most popular theories is McClelland‘s theory of needs which developed by David McClelland and his associates, the theory focuses on three needs achievement, power and affiliation.

1. Need for achievement The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. The employees who have the need for achievement would like to do challenge of working at a problem and accepting the personal responsibility for success or failure rather than leaving the outcome to chance or the actions of others. Therefore, they dislike the succeed by chance. This kind of employees more tends to work independently, such as personal seller.

. Need for power The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise, Individuals high in need for power enjoy being “in charge”, strive for influence over other, prefer to be placed into competitive and status-oriented situation, and tend to be more concerned with prestige and gaining influence over others than with effective performance.

. Need for affiliation The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationship. People in need for affiliation are desire to be liked and accepted by others and they strive for friendship, prefer cooperative situations rather than competitive ones, and desire relationships involving a high degree of mutual understanding.

Individuals high in need for power and affiliation are the best for management; a manager should contain the ability to in charge and make relationship to lower level subordinates.

Therefore, the employees who have different need will have different working behaviors, the top executive should concern to their needs in order to apply the suitable motivation.

Question 10 (Page 10)

What can you do, as a manager, to increase the likelihood that your employees will exert a high level of effort?

Obviously, people work for their needs and they hope the company that they are working can satisfy their needs. However employees have different needs. As a manager, should try to understand the individual s’ needs of each employee in order to motivate their work harder for the company.

Therefore, we couldn’t treat every employee all alike. The reason because of different needs of each other and diversify in experience, skill and abilities. It is challenge for how to motivate professional employees, contingent workers, the diversified workers, low-skilled service workers and people doing highly repetitive tasks. Moreover motivate a supervisor differ to lower workers.

Popularly, the organization motivate by setting goals and reward from performance. The reward is not always money; it can be a promotion, a trip, training course for upgrade their professional knowledges. For instance, motivating some low-skilled workers they are very hard working, the company can pay for them some suitable training course to improve their working-skills. In doing so, I think that can create their appreciation and loyalty to the company.

In conclusion, there are best motivation methods but only a suitable motivation method for the company to encourage the employees to exert a higher level of effort.

Question 1 (Page 76)

Contrast self-managed and cross-functional teams.

Self-managed work teams are groups of employees (typically 10 to 15 in number) who perform highly related or interdependent jobs and take on many of the responsibilities of their former supervisors. Typically, this includes planning and scheduling of work, assigning tasks to members, collective control over the pace of work, making operating decisions, taking action on problems, and working with suppliers and customers, even select their own members and have the members evaluate each other’s performance. As a result, supervisory positions take on decreased importance and may even be eliminated. Members of the team are different level of the organization; the team should select the suitable employees to join the team. For example, create a team to develop safety-working environment in the plant, so that the team need to select which employees are necessary to join the team such as human resource manager, security, representative of labor union, production manager, lower level employees in order to find out the safety problem of the factory and make solution and implement it within in a definite time.

Cross-functional teams, these are teams made up of employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task. For example, creating a new cross-functional team to build up a new line for producing stainless steel tube. Therefore, members of the team should include finance, production, marketing, purchasing, R&D department and so on. The team has to combine all professional ideas together and implement the plan. However, It should be time-consuming in the beginning to understand each other of the members within the team.

Both cross-functional teams and self-managed teams are investigated for solving problem and accomplishing tasks, they are relied on the situation and then we should choose the appropriated one. Furthermore, good performance of team-working are deeply influenced by the reward of the organization.

Question 10 (Page 07)

What can managers do to improve their skills at providing performance feedback?

The chapter further suggests that the goal of perfect communication is unattainable, depending on the situation to carry out the suitable communication methods. For instance, differentiate in high-context culture and low-context culture country ‘s managers would behave variously to increase employees capacities at providing performance feedback.

Vietnam, which perceived is high-context culture country, usually communication channels are rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues in communication. And people are more emotion and afraid in losing face. Therefore, as a manager to provide feedback from their performances, face to face interviews are often used in order to understand directly the employees and also create job satisfaction of them. Such as praising good-performed employees and encourage bad performed employees, provide a chance for the bad one to perform better in the future.

Question 10 (Page 4)

Contrast the three type of trust. Relate them to your experience in personal relationships.

Trust is a positive expectation that another will not act opportunistically. There are three type of trust Deterrence-based, knowledge-based, and identification-based.

Deterrence-Based trust is based on fear of reprisal of the trust is violated, it will work only to the degree that punishment is possible, consequence are clear, and the punishment is actually imposed of the trust is violated. This form of trust can be found in a relationship between a new manager-employee relationship. As an employee, you typically trust a new boss even though there is little experience to base that trust on. Because this trust lies in the authority held by the boss and the punishment he or she can impose if you fail to fulfill your job-related obligations.

Knowledge-based trust is based on the behavioral predictability that comes from a history of interaction. It exists when you have adequate information about someone to understand them well enough to be able to accurately predict their behavior. This kind of trust can be upgraded from deterrence-based. Though a long duration working relationship can build up more trust, the manager can predict their employees s’ behaviors , on the other hand, employees can predict their manager behaviors.

Identification-Based trust is the highest level of trust is achieved when there is an emotional connection between the parties. It allows one party to act as an agent for the agent for the other and substitute for that person in interpersonal transactions. This trust exists because the parties understand each other’s intention and appreciate the other’s wants and desires. This mutual understanding is developed to the point that each can effectively act for the other. Additionally, this form of trust occasionally in organizations among people who have worked together for long periods of time and have a depth of experience that allows them to know each other inside and out. In this situation, the managers can feel free to delegate important tasks to their employees because they understand well them and believe their employees would fulfill their wants.

For my point of view, building up trust with manager and employee isn’t a thing can be completed within one or two months, it should take challenge and a long periods of time, maybe several years in order to upgrade their trustworthiness step by step. As I am a managing director of a joint stock company in Vietnam, to make employees trust you that you have to give them a chance to perform let them realize that you trust them, in doing so, we can create loyalty and appreciation of the employees. Moreover the trust also can move from deterrence-based to identification-based.

Question 5 (Page 76)

What creates dependency? Give an applied example.

Dependency is increased when the resource you control is important, scarce and nonsubstitutable.

Importance to create dependency, therefore , the thing(s) you control must be perceived as being important. Organizations,

Scarcity A resource needs to be perceived as scarce to create dependency.

Nonsubstitutability The more that a resource has no viable substitute, the more power that control over that resource provides

Absolutely, these three factors are the determinant of power of an organization, therefore, a leader of an organization should be dependency. Because a leader has a long term vision that other do not have. Not only strong in money but also need to have personal power. What you speak that all employees listen and act as like what you expect. For example, the chairman of HLAC Vietnam which is the first manufacture producing carbon steel tube and stainless steel tube. He always predict the market faster and more accurate than other and he have built up good reputation and well-known in steel industry in Vietnam, for that he is very easy to get financing support from the banks, so his business was very successful up to now. Moreover he always dream of setting up a steel making mill in Vietnam in the future. Inside the organization he have built the trust to all workers and he is also respectful by the workers. He always says that” If you don’t upgrade yourself, you will be failed”

In conclusion, being dependent need to be stand out in the organization, you need to control the resource that other can not upgrade in a short time. Such like above example, the individual personality, experience and long term vision are very important, also scarce and non-substitutable in an organization.

Question (Page 406)

Under what conditions might conflict be beneficial to a group?

There are two types of conflicts, functional and dysfunctional, functional conflict can supports the goals of the group and improves its performance. In order to keep conflict to be beneficial to the group, we look at some related conflicts task conflict that is the conflict over content and goals of the work, relationship conflict is the conflict based on interpersonal relationships and process conflict is the conflict over how work gets done.

First of all relationship conflict must be under controlled, avoid the friction and interpersonal hostilities inherent in relationship conflict increases personality clashes and decreases mutual understanding. On the other hand, low levels of process conflict and low to moderate levels of task conflict are functional. For process conflict to be productive, it must be kept low intense arguments about who should do what becomes dysfunctional when it create uncertainty about task roles, increases the time to complete tasks, and leads to members working at cross purposes. Low to moderate levels of task conflict consistently demonstrate a positive effect on group performance because it stimulates discussion of ideas that help groups perform better.

Below factors can make conflict have high performance

Situation Level of Conflict Type of conflict Units internal characteristics Unit performance outcome

A Low or none Dysfunctional Apathetic


Non-responsive to change

Lack of new ideas Low

B Optimal Functional Viable


Innovative High

C High Dysfunctional Disruptive


Uncooperative Low

In conclusion, different level of conflict creates different unit performance outcomes. The optimal level is the best one could make high performance.

Question 1 (Page 4)

Why isn’t work specialization an unending source of increased productivity?

Work specialization or it can be called as division of labor, to describe the dgree to which tasks in the organization are subdivided into separate jobs. The essence of it is that, rather than an entire job being done by one individual, it is broken down into a number of steps, with each step being completed by a separate individual. In essence, individuals specialize in doing part of an activity rather than the entire activity.

Work specialization was mostly used and efficiently in industrialized countries. Management saw this as a means to make the most efficient use of its employees’ skill. Some tasks require highly developed skills and others can be performed by untrained workers, of course, skilled worker are paid more than unskilled workers, this way also could save cost efficiently.

However, because work specialization require employees do repetitive tasks, by the 160s, there came increasing evidence that a good thing can be carried too far, The point had been reached in some jobs at which the human diseconomies from specialization which surfaced as boredom, fatigue, stress, low productivity, poor quality, increased absenteeism and high turnover-more than offset the economic advantages. As a result, a number of companies found that by giving employees a variety of activities to do, allowing them to do a whole and complete job, and putting them into teams with interchangeable skills, they often achieved significantly higher output, with increased employee satisfaction.

Work specialization is very useful in production line and also very efficient and productivity, however, it lack of humanity, because human is not a machine and they have feeling, behavior, people sometime need some thing new and changing. Such like a Vietnamese could not each Vietnamese food all his or her life, some time he or she would to eat Chinese food or Italian food. That why specialization is not an unending source of increased productivity.

Question 6 (Page 468)

How could you design an office so as to increase the opportunity for employees to be productive?

Office design relied on the organization structure and what kind of industry you are doing. It could be formal or informal, it relate to the size, arrangement, privacy, even Feng Shui, especially Asian people when they arrange their house or office, they should look at which position can bring luck and more money to them.

For my opinion, my company is producing carbon steel tube and stainless steel tube, so the office should be structural and departmentalized, each department in charge a specific task. Each department will be provided enough facility for employees, such as computer, printer, telecommunication, internet access facility and optimal work desk. In order to provide employees enough condition to satisfy their working requirement.

Question 8 (Page 51)

What benefits can socialization provide for the organization? For the new employees?

No matter how good a job the organization does in recruiting and selection, new employees are not fully indoctrinated in the organizations’ culture, because they are unfamiliar with the organizations’ culture, therefore, socialization describes the process that adapts employees to the organizations’ culture.

To make employees get along with organization s’ culture. Normally it should pass thought three steps Prearrival, Encounter, Metamorphosis. The new employee masters the adjustments to his or her successfully performs his or her new roles, and makes the adjustments to his or her work group’s values and norms. This three-stage process has an impact on the new employee’s work productivity, commitment to the organization’s objectives, and eventual decision to stay with the organization decision to stay with the organization.

In practice, when a person has just come into a multinational company, he or she will be realized that there is different organizational culture from his or her former company which Vietnamese domestic company. If this person want to work in environment that he or she need to adapt its culture, therefore it is necessary to go through three-stage process to get along its culture step by step, for example, work environment is needed to communicate with English all the time, because multinational company‘s employees are come from various countries and they have their native languages. Therefore, English is the best choice for them in communication in order to let everyone understand. The new employees, no matter wherever they from, they should learn the organization’s culture to perform their tasks successfully and satisfy organization’s need.

Question 6 (Page 575)

What changes can an organization that has a history of “following the leader” make to foster innovation?

How can an organization become more innovative and to leave out the habit of “following the leader”? Therefore, the reason of changing is to make things different and make better outcomes. The most studied potential source of innovation is structural variables,

A comprehensive review of the structure innovation relationship leads to the following conclusions. First, organic structures positively influence innovation. Because they are lower in vertical differentiation, formalization, and centralization, organic organizations facilitate the flexibility, adaptation and cross-fertilization that make the adoption of innovations easier. Second, long tenure in management is associated with innovation. Managerial tenure apparently provides legitimacy and knowledge of how to accomplish tasks and obtain desired outcomes. Third, innovation is nurtured when there are slack resources. Having an abundance of resources allows an organization to afford to purchase innovations, bear the cost of instituting innovations, and absorb failures. Finally, interunit communication is high in innovative organizations. These organizations are high users of committees, task forces, cross-functional teams, and other mechanisms that facilitate interaction across departmental lines.

Innovative organizations tend to have similar cultures, they encourage experimentation. They reward both successes and failures. By doing so, the managers recognize that failures are a natural by-product of venturing into the unknown. For instance, in my company “HLAC stainless steel tube making company”, we reward the employees which have successfully installed a new machine and support the employees which haven’t worked out. Reduce the penalties and encourage them to take risk try more times.

In conclusion, to create innovation in organization that should flexibly provide more chances for employees are managers. As a result, the workers could apply the experiences in failure to perform better and become innovative. Moreover rewards are shouldn’t be forgotten in the processes.

Please note that this sample paper on changes to innovation is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on changes to innovation, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on changes to innovation will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from Live Paper Help and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!

Leave a Reply

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.